Speech is the communication / expression of thoughts and feelings in spoken words.
A disorder affecting an individuals ability to produce normal speech is referred to as a speech disorder. A speech disorder may affect articulation (Phonetic / Phonological) Fluency ( Stuttering / Cluttering ) and or voice (tone, pitch, volume / speed)
According to American speech language hearing Association (ASHA), a language disorder is an impairment in comprehension of the use of spoken, written or other symbol system.
Reasons for speech and language disorder:
- Brain injury
- Alcohol abuse / drug abuse
- Genetic disorder
- Neurological speech disorder ( eg: cerebral palsy)
- Hearing Loss
- Mental retardation
- Cleft lip and palate
- Vocal abuse / misuse, etc.
Unable to produce a particular sound. Hence it is difficult to
understand the speech of people with articulation problems
Speech Sound Disorder
Disorder seen in children due to developmental disorders like
autism, down syndrome etc
People with cluttering speeks very fastly and it is very
difficult to understand their speech.
Cluttering thus effects the fluency of speech
Dysarthria is caused due to stroke, brain tumor etc.
As a result of this, muscles of tongue / mouth becomes weak /
Thus speech becomes slow and inaccurate.
Lisps: Difficulty to produce specific speech sound.
Dysprosody : Rare type of speech disorder wherein the rhythm,
timing, modulation and intensity of speech is affected.
Physically unable to produce sounds like Ďc, tí with the use
of tongue, teeth, lips, palate, facial muscles and nerves.
Usually a person with phonemic disorder substitute one sound for
This is characterized by academic functioning that is below a
personís chronological age, measured intelligence and
Significantly sub average intellectual functioning (IQ 70/below)
with onset before 18 years and deficits in adaptive behavior (
communication, self care, social skills, etc.)
Lack of communication skills and difficulty with social
Neurological disorder due to developmental defects in the brain
during infancy / early childhood.
Cleft Lip and Palate